Does Consumption of Refined Carbohydrate Predict Incidence of Type Two Diabetes Mellitus? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mohammad Mahzari, Abdullah A Mamun

Background: Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent health disorder among adult males and females worldwide. There is consistent evidence that unhealthy diets and physical inactivity play an important role in the development of T2DM. Many people consume refined carbohydrates as part of their daily meals. However, the evidence on whether refined carbohydrates predict T2DM is inconclusive. Objective: To provide evidence on the association between refined carbohydrates and the incidence of T2DM. Method: The literature search through PubMed, Embase, CINHAL and Scopus identified prospective cohort studies that associated refined carbohydrate intake with the incidence of T2DM in non-diabetic participants. We then summarized the evidence by using systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted for prospective cohort studies that examined the intake of refined carbohydrates and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. We included 16 articles in the systematic review. Of these 16 articles, only eight examined refined carbohydrates separately from other diets, so these eight were included in the meta-analysis. Our findings from the systematic review suggest heavily that a link exists between high consumption of refined carbohydrates, especially white rice, and the development of T2DM. In the meta-analysis, the random effects model of included studies suggests a positive linkage between refined carbohydrate intake and the incidence of T2DM with a pooled RR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.18, 1.48]. Conclusion: Consumption of high amounts of refined carbohydrates is significantly associated with the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Reducing refined carbohydrates and improved information about their risk and access to this information may prevent T2DM development worldwide.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/ijmp.v8n1a1